Brief Timeline of the History of Islamic Crusades
570 AD. Muhammad is born in Mecca. He comes from a noble family and is well-known for his honesty and upright character.
610. According to Muslim belief, Muhammad, 40, is visited by the angel Gabriel while on retreat in a cave near Mecca. The angel recites to him the first revelations of the Quran and informs him that he is God’s prophet. He is met with hostility, and he and his followers began to be persecuted.
622. After enduring persecution in Mecca, Muhammad and his followers migrate to Medina, where the people there accepted Islam. This is the beginning of the Islamic calendar. He establishes an Islamic state based on the laws revealed in the Quran and invites other tribes and nations to Islam.
630. Muhammad returns to Mecca with a large number of his followers. He enters the city peacefully, and eventually all its citizens accept Islam. The prophet clears the idols and images out of the Kaaba and rededicates it to the worship of God alone.
633. Muhammad dies. His father-in-law, Abu Bakr, becomes his successor or caliph.
638-55. Muslims conquer the area north of Arabia, including Syria, Palestine (including Jerusalem), Lebanon and Iraq; Egypt and North Africa.
711-1481. Muslims conquer Spain and Iberia in the west and India in the east.
719. Muslims begin attacking France.
732. Muslims are defeated at Battle of Tours (Poitiers) in France by Charles Martel. Many regard this victory over Muslims as the turning point in saving Europe from Muslim control.
750. Power shift to Baghdad.
1000. Islam continues to spread through the continent of Africa, including Nigeria.
1054. The Great Schism: The permanent separation of the Western Church, led by Rome, and the Easter Church (Byzantine), led by Constantinople. Weakened both against Muslims.
1095-1291. The Crusades launched by Europeans to retake the “Holy Land.”
1099. European Crusaders take Jerusalem from the Muslims, but later retakes it.
1120. Islam continues to spread throughout Asia, including southeast Asia.
1204. Crusaders sack Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Church.
1299. The earliest Ottoman state is formed in Anatolia, Turkey.
1453. Ottomans conquer the Byzantine seat of Constantinople and change its name to Istanbul.
1492. The last Muslim armies defeated in and expelled from Spain after almost 800 years of occupation.
1529 and 1683. Muslims laid siege to Vienna and defeated both times.
1915-22. Muslims in Turkey commit genocide against Christian Armenians. Over 1.5 million Armenians were massacred.
1919. World War I ends with the defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, which was the last of the Islamic empires.
1960s-present. Resurgence of worldwide Islamic terrorism in the establishment of the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1964, the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979, and the 9/11 attacks in America.